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The English Renaissance (1485-1660)

  1.   The Renaissance- a shift in human values and perceptions known as a rebirth
  2. During this period, people stopped focusing on religion and the afterlife and then began stressing human life on earth.
  3. Europeans liked the arts and literature, the beauty of nature, in human inpulses, and a new sense of mastery of the world
  4. Classicals
  5. Expanded scientific, geographical, and philosophical boundries.
  6. The individual and their potential
  7. War of the Roses
  8. ended in 1485 and Henry tudor took the throne- Henry VII
  9. Strong authority at home and negotiated favorable commercial treatied abroad
  10. built up the merchant fleet and made expeditions
  11. son of Arthur, married Catherine of Aragon, and then Henry VII

The Reign og Henry VIII

  1. Succeeded his father in 1509
  2. A skilled athelete, poet,  and musician.  Also well-educated in French, Italian, and Latin
  3. Protestant Reformation
  4. discontentment with church abuses
  5. growing nationalism
  6. Had only one child, Mary and became obsessed with having a male heir
  7. Marriage annulled becausee of this.  Wanted to mary Anne Boleyn
  8. When Pope refused to do this, Henry broke away from the Catholic Church.  He formed to Church of England AKA the Anglican Church
  9. Anne only had one daughter, Elizabeth and was executed as an adulturer
  10. A third marriage gave Henry the son he wanted, Edward VI.  Succeed at 9 years in 1547.
  11. Church became more protestant.  Book of Common Prayer
  12. When Edward died, Mary took the throne.  Reintroduced Roman Caholicism.   Nicknamed "Bloody Mary"
  13. Succeeded by Elizabeth in 1558

The Elizabethan Era

  1. Daughter of Henry VII and Anne Boleyn.  One of the ablest monarchs in English history
  2. Renaissance reached its height and England became unprecedented in prosperity and international prestige
  3. Balanced budget, consummate politician, exercised absolute authority while sensitive to public needs
  4. Used the Church of England as a buffer between the Protestants and Rome
  5. Kept out of costly wars and ended the Spanish alliance
  6. Used marriage to her advantage
  7. Encouraged overseas ventured
  8. Sir Francis Drake
  9. Walter Raleigh
  10. Executed cousin Mary of Scots for conspiracy
  11. Spanish Armada
  12. challenged the English navy
  13. England defeated them

The rise of the Stuarts

  1. The Tudor dynasty came to an end with the death of Elizabeth.  She was succeeded by James VI of Scotland, son of Maty Stuart
  2. Hsppy in the Church of England but both Catholics and Protestants wanted him on their side.
  3. Gunpowerder plot of 1608.  The guy Fawkes
  4. Charled I took the throne in 1625
  5. Both lacked political sauvy and frugality of Elizabeth.  Believed in the devine right of Kings, because of this, theyreally didn't like parliment and the House of Commons
  6. In 1629, Charles dissmissed Parliment, refusing to call it again for 11 years
  7. Courts fo the Star Chamber tried without jury
  8. Many went to America

The Defeat of the Monarchy

  1. Royalists-supporterd of the monarchy- vs. supporters of Parliment
  2. Under Gereral Oliver Cromwell
  3. Puritan
  4. Defeated Royalists in 1645
  5. In 1649, the King was executed
  6. Cromwell was head or "lord proitector" for life
  7. Theaters closed, Sunday a day of prayer, recreation suspended
  8. When he died, his son inherited the position, but was not so capable as his father
  9. Charles II- The Restoration